Category Archives: Business
The announcement by CVS Caremark this morning that it will stop selling cigarettes and other tobacco products at its more than 7,600 CVS pharmacy stores across the United States by October 1, 2014, does more than just end an outlet for smokers. It also removes a highly effective marketing tactic from those stores, the tobacco "power wall," which is aimed at enticing current and would-be smokers—especially children and teens—to smoke.
Most retail food and sundry stores include the colorful display walls, which are usually designed by tobacco companies who also often provide financial incentives to store owners to keep the walls stocked. A report, updated in 2012, by the Center for Public Health and Tobacco Policy which is funded by the New York State and Vermont departments of Health, says the power walls “are highly engineered by tobacco companies to maximize visual intrusiveness and instigate impulse purchases.” The report adds that the walls “function as a subtle kind of advertising, conveying the message that cigarettes are popular and desirable."
A 2006 study in the journal Heath Education Research found that “[t]he presence of cigarette displays at the point-of-sale... has adverse effects on students’ perceptions about ease of access to cigarettes and brand recall, both factors that increase the risk of taking up smoking.”
And, according to a November report on point of sale displays by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, exposure to point of sale tobacco product displays “influences youth smoking, promotes the social acceptability of tobacco products, increases impulse tobacco purchases and undermines quitting attempts.”
While San Francisco and a few other cities have passed laws that ban cigarette sales in pharmacies, and the advocacy group Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights is working to expand that ban, no U.S. jurisdictions have ended displays of tobacco products according to tobacco control legal experts, generally because of concern that they might be sued by tobacco companies claiming an infringement of the companies’ right to commercial free speech under the U.S. Constitution. Recently, tobacco control legal experts have said tobacco company suits likely have less merit since the 2009 law giving regulation of most U.S. tobacco products to the Food and Drug Administration.
But tobacco control advocates hope other major pharmcies will follow the CVS example, since leveraging the power of private companies to support a culture of health may be a far more effective way to bring down those walls.
>>Read a statement by Robert Wood Johnson Foundation president Risa Lavizzo Mourey on the CVS Caremark decision to stop selling cigarettes in its stores.
Bithlo, Fla. is a town of 8,000 that is just 30 minutes outside Orlando and not much farther from the “happiest place on Earth” — but is beset by poverty, illiteracy, unemployment and toxic dumps that have infiltrated the drinking water. The water is so bad that it has eroded many residents’ teeth, making it that much harder for them to find jobs. Streets filled with trash, frequent road deaths and injuries from a lack of transportation options and safe places to walk, and dropping out before 10th grade were all the norm.
In just a short time, a collection of partners and volunteers have begun to reverse some of the decades-old problems Bithlo has faced. And earlier this week, the town that had been forgotten for almost a century was the scene of a hubbub of activity as hundreds of volunteers descended on the town to continue work on “Transformation Village,” Bithlo’s future main street, which will sport a combination library/coffee shop, schools, shops and many other services, all long missing from Bithlo.
Over the last few months, NewPublicHealth has reported on initiatives of the participating members of Stakeholder Health, formerly known as the Health Systems Learning Group. Stakeholder Health is a learning collaborative made up of 43 organizations, including 36 nonprofit health systems, that share innovative practices aimed at improving health and economic viability of communities.
>>Read more on the Stakeholder Health effort to leverage health care systems to improve community health.
One of the Stakeholder Health members is the Adventist Health System, a not-for-profit health care system that has hospitals across the country. Recently, Adventist’s flagship health care provider, Florida Hospital in Orlando, began supporting United Global Outreach (UGO), a non-profit group aimed at building up communities in need, in their four-year-long effort to transform the town of Bithlo.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Tim McKinney, executive vice president of United Global Outreach, and Verbelee Neilsen-Swanson, vice president of community impact at Florida Hospital, about the partnerships and commitment that have gone into Bithlo’s transformation into a town that is looking forward to new housing stock, jobs, stores, better education and improved health outcomes for the its citizens.
BSR: More and More, Private Sector Being Asked to Improve Population Health
Traditionally, health efforts fall under the purview of human resources—not corporate social responsibility (CSR)—in the business world. However, companies are playing an increasingly important role in not only health improvement efforts for their own employees, but also in population health for their larger communities. Increasingly, consumers are demanding this from companies to support their CSR work, as reported by Fast Company. That's also the subject of a BSR report, A New CSR Frontier: Business and Population Health. The report looked at the role of businesses in overall public health for more than 350 major companies, including Coca-Cola, Walmart, Microsoft, Chevron, and General Mills. The report found three major trends:
- Society expects companies to play a bigger role in population health
- Companies are responding to those expectations, but primarily with employees and customers
- Health and wellness are still largely the domain of human resources, even though departments such as philanthropy, marketing and research & development should be involved
"The pullback of government as an influence for population health has created gaps and stakeholders are expecting more from the private sector," said Mark Little, director of health care advisory services at BSR. "The overarching single headline is that business now has new responsibilities that are recognized by stakeholders. We do believe there is a new frontier for CSR."
Support for this report was provided by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Read more on business.
AAP Offers New Guidelines to Reduce Risk of Antibiotic Resistance
This week is “Get Smart About Antibiotics Week,” and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has released new guidance that would limit the over-prescription of antibiotics that is contributing to the growing public health issue of antibiotic resistance. The guidance, formulated in collaboration with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), focuses on the three common upper respiratory tract infections in children that are unlikely to be helped by antibiotics: ear infections, sinus infections and sore throats. The report includes clinical criteria to help physicians determine whether an upper respiratory tract infection is viral or bacterial, which will improve care while limiting opportunities for bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. “Our medicine cabinet is nearly empty of antibiotics to treat some infections,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “If doctors prescribe antibiotics carefully and patients take them as prescribed we can preserve these lifesaving drugs and avoid entering a post-antibiotic era.” Read more on prescription drugs.
Study: Half of Teens with Mental Disorders Receive No Treatment
Despite ever-increasing knowledge about psychiatric conditions and their links to other health issues, more than half of American teenagers with psychiatric disorders do not receive treatment, according to a new study in the journal Psychiatric Services. The study found that treatment rates varied by disorder. For example, adolescents with ADHD received care more than 70 percent of the time, while adolescents with phobias or anxiety disorders were the least likely to receive mental health care. The analysis also found racial disparities, with white youths far more likely to receive care than black youths. The lack of qualified child mental health professionals also hinders access to care, with pediatricians, school counselors and probation officers being asked to provide care for which they are not actually trained, according to E. Jane Costello, a Duke University professor of psychology and epidemiology and associate director of the Duke Center for Child and Family Policy. "We need to train more child psychiatrists in this country," she said. “And those individuals need to be used strategically, as consultants to the school counselors and others who do the lion's share of the work." The study included data from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement, as well as a survey of more than 10,000 U.S. teenagers. Read more on mental health.
During a town hall meeting in Minnesota last month, the Target Corporation, one of the largest employers in the United States, announced that the company will remove the criminal history question from its initial employment application. While Target has already removed this question in states where it is legally prohibited, this announcement will apply to all U.S. Target locations, even in areas where asking the question is permitted by state or local law. In Minnesota, the Ban the Box law will go into effect January 1, 2014.
“Over the past year, members of the Target team have had many productive conversations with TakeAction Minnesota,” says Molly Snyder, a spokesman for the company. “Many of our discussions have focused on Minnesota’s racial jobs gap and the barriers individuals with criminal records face when seeking employment.”
The decision by Target is in part the result of efforts led by the TakeAction Minnesota Education Fund, a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Roadmaps to Health community grantee, to address job discrimination based on criminal background. Often tied to significant unemployment throughout the country, studies show that having a criminal record is a barrier to employment opportunities and depresses wages. And data from Minnesota finds that half of all former offenders are unemployed, with the rate higher for ex-offenders of color who disproportionately make up the prison population.
The Roadmaps to Health Community Grants are collaborations that have received two year funding of up to $200,000 to work with diverse coalitions of policy-makers, business, education, health care, public health, and community organizations. The grantees and their partners are pursuing policies or system changes that address the social, economic, and environmental factors that influence how healthy people are and how long they live. The Roadmaps to Health Community Grants project is a major component of the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps program—a collaboration of RWJF and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.
TakeAction Minnesota is using its grant to promote new statewide fair hiring standards for businesses, such as persuading prospective employers to consider criminal records only when they directly relate to the position rather than asking questions on applications that promote blanket rejections. Earlier this year, the Minnesota legislature passed the “ban the box” legislation and it was signed into law in May, making Minnesota the third state in the nation to adopt “ban the box” in both the public and private sectors. Under the new law, an employer will no longer be allowed to include a check box about criminal background on the initial employment application.
NewPublicHealth recently spoke with Justin Terrell, manager of the Justice 4 All program at TakeAction Minnesota, about the intersection of employment and health.
NewPublicHealth: What are the ways in which employment impacts health?
BSR: New Ways U.S. Companies Can Improve Population Health
U.S. companies can improve population health by improving how they engage with employees, customers, local communities, suppliers and the general public, according to a new BSR report supported by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. BSR interviewed 40 leading authorities on health and wellness, public health, corporate social responsibility and corporate affairs, as well as reviewed more than 35 corporate CSR reports across 10 industries and surveyed nearly 30 U.S.-based BSR member companies about their current activities on health and wellness. The report emphasizes how CSR teams can help lead the charge in improving population health. “Within business, the corporate social responsibility (CSR) teams are well-positioned to lead this work—helping their companies look carefully at the positive as well as negative impacts on health and wellness, and helping them identify opportunities to deliver better business results and health outcomes,” said Mark Little, BSR’s healthcare director. Read more on business.
CDC: Colorectal Cancer Screening Rate Remains Low
Despite continued research showing that colorectal cancer screening tests saves lives, as many as one in three adults ages 50 to 75 have not been tested, according to a new Vital Signs report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The cancer type is the second-leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States, and screening can help prevent it or even detect it early, when treatment is more effective. “There are more than 20 million adults in this country who haven’t had any recommended screening for colorectal cancer and who may therefore get cancer and die from a preventable tragedy,” said CDC Director Tom Frieden, MD, MPH. “Screening for colorectal cancer is effective and can save your life.” the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends that all adults age 50 and older be screened by at least one of three tests, which can variously be performed at home or by a doctor, and once every year, three years or decade. Read more on cancer.
Study: Eating Disorders in Young Men Often Different Than Those in Women
While not as widely discussed or researched, young men—just like young women—can become obsessed with their appearance and develop dangerous eating disorders, according to a new study in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. The problem can resemble a traditional eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, or involve the use of drugs and supplements. The disorders are often paired with depression, binge drinking and recreational drug use. The researchers’ survey of 5,527 boys, ages 12-18, found that 31 percent had at some point binged on food or purged, 9 percent had a high level of concern with their body's muscularity and about 2 percent were both concerned about muscularity and had used some type of supplement, growth hormone derivative or anabolic steroid to enhance it. "The results of our studies would suggest we need to be thinking more broadly about eating disorders and consider males as well," said Alison Field, the study's lead author and an associate professor of pediatrics at Boston Children's Hospital. "For a lot of males, what they're striving for is different than females. They're probably engaged in something different than purging." Read more on pediatrics.
GUEST POST by John Skendall, Manager, Web and New Media at the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO).
“How much are we really doing in the area of worksite wellness? Are we walking the talk and serving our employees the way we should?” This question was posed by Paul Jarris, executive director of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), in a session on workplace wellness at the organization’s annual meeting last Friday in Orlando.
Jarris said that health departments can do more to foster wellness among employees in the states and territories. “We in public health are not leading in this area,” he said. “We are the laggards.”
>>Follow continued ASTHO Annual Meeting coverage on NewPublicHealth.org.
Terry Dwelle, state health official for the North Dakota Department of Health and moderator of the session, agreed. “Health departments must have a worksite wellness program. We need to practice what we preach,” said Dwelle. He also said that the business case for worksite wellness needs to be made to convince employers of the value of investing in wellness.
The business sector is a critical partner when it comes to promoting the health of a community. Employment, income and overall economic stability greatly impact employee and community health. Increasingly, businesses are expanding their efforts from worksite-based health promotion programs to community-wide initiatives to ensure their employees’ access to healthy choices and environments.
Next Tuesday at 3 p.m., a County Health Rankings webinar will take a look at how local health leaders and businesses can work together to advance the health improvement efforts in their communities. The webinar will feature guest speaker Cara McNulty, Senior Group Manager for Prevention and Wellness at Target Corporation, which according to webinar organizers is “known for its commitment to community giving.” McNulty will share examples and lessons learned from her experience at Target to answer key questions:
- What kinds of partnerships are businesses looking for?
- What do communities and businesses need to understand about each other in order to forge successful partnerships?
>>Join the webinar to learn how to build common ground with businesses in your community and advance community health together.
NewPublicHealth has written extensively about community development—how financial investments can in time make the places we live, learn, work and play healthier. To truly be successful, it’s a course that no one organization or institution or person can take alone. It’s about partnerships. Community developers, public health officials, foundations and bankers must all come together to determine a strategy for investing and reinvesting in communities.
On Tuesday, September 3, from noon to 5:15 p.m. EST, SOCAP Health will bring together in a live webcast an array of experts to explore this new “health impact economy” and discuss real-world examples of successful partnerships that are improving health in low-income neighborhoods. The event is being held by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, and additional sponsors include Social Capital Markets (SOCAP) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
Before Tuesday’s online event, take a look back at NewPublicHealth’s coverage of community development. Some of our biggest stories include:
A recent vote by the Washington D.C. City Council requires large retailers to pay a minimum hourly wage of $12.50 an hour—$5.25 more than the current minimum wage of $7.25 nationally and $8.25 in D.C.— and the decision received wide attention, especially when retailers planning to build new stores in the city said they’d pull the plug on the projects if required to pay the higher salaries. But at least two recent magazine articles explain why there’s been a fervent recent push to try to push up the wages of those in low-paying jobs. New York Magazine recently surveyed 100 fast food restaurant employees in that city and asked, among other things, “can you live off your paycheck?” The answer appears to be no. The average pretax monthly pay for the surveyed workers was $984 while average monthly expenses including rent, utilities, groceries and cell phone bills was $1,115—which adds up to $131 more in expenses than pay.
>>Bonus Link: Why does income matter to health? See a NewPublicHealth infographic on how stable jobs and income lead to healthier lives.
And last weeks’ New Yorker Magazine added heft to the need to look at the current minimum wage rate, in light of just how critical that income is to many households. According to the article, while low-wage retail jobs were once squarely aimed at high school students looking for pocket money and those looking for supplemental income, in the last few years of stiff unemployment, studies find that current low-wage workers are responsible for 46 percent of household income. According to the New Yorker article, “Congress is currently considering a bill increasing the minimum wage to $10.10 over the next three years…still a long way from turning these jobs into the kind of employment that can support a middle-class family.”
Britain to Regulate, Improve Quality of E-Cigarettes
The British government plan to regulate electronic cigarettes as non-prescription medicine starting in 201, according to Reuters. E-Cigarettes are battery-operated devices that contain cartridges filled with nicotine, flavor, and other chemicals. They turn nicotine, which is highly addictive, and other chemicals into a vapor that can be inhaled. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned that, "As the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes have not been fully studied, consumers of e-cigarette products currently have no way of knowing:
- whether e-cigarettes are safe for their intended use,
- how much nicotine or other potentially harmful chemicals are being inhaled during use, or
- if there are any benefits associated with using these products."
The devices do not contain any health warnings comparable to FDA-approved nicotine replacement products or conventional cigarettes. Currently, e-cigarettes that are marketed for therapeutic purposes are regulated by the FDA. According to Reuters, "Under the new British system, manufacturers will have to prove the quality of their products and demonstrate that they deliver the correct amount of nicotine. But they will not need to conduct clinical trials." Read more on tobacco and nicotine.
Even Hands-Free Devices Create Unsafe, Distracted Driving Conditions
A new report from AAA finds that even hands-free mobile devices create mental distractions that can drain attention away from focusing on the road and safe driving. The study found that mentally-distracted drivers—those who may not have even taken their eyes off the road but were distracted by speaking with someone through a hands-free device—missed visual cues, had slower reaction times, and even exhibited a sort of "tunnel vision" by not checking side- and rear-view mirrors or actively scanning the full roadway for potential hazards. Activities like listening to the radio or an audio book was mildly distracting (but likely not enough to effect driving safety); conversing with others (whether with fellow passengers, with someone via hand-held device or with some via hands-free device) was moderately but significantly distracting; and using a device with speech-to-text technology to send text messages or e-mails was highly distracting. Researchers hope these findings can be used to help craft science-based policies on driver distraction. Read more on safety.
CDC Partners with 104 Businesses to Improve Employee Health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), through its partner Viridian Health Management, has identified 104 employers in eight counties across the nation that have voluntarily chosen to participate in the National Healthy Worksite Program, a new initiative aimed at reducing chronic disease and building a healthier, more productive U.S. workforce—while also cutting health care costs. The initiative primarily focuses on small and mid-sized employers. a national evaluation will document best practices and models on how to successfully implement workplace health programs in small worksites more broadly. Read more on what businesses are doing to create healthier communities.