Category Archives: Community violence

Jul 17 2014
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RWJF Scholars in the News: Gun violence, suicide, ‘structural’ versus ‘cultural’ competency, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

An NPR story quotes RWJF Health & Society Scholars program alumnus Andrew Papachristos, PhD, citing his extensive research on gun violence. Papachristos criticizes the lack of context in media coverage of violence, noting that incidents such as the series of shootings over the Fourth of July weekend in Chicago tend to be treated simply as a long stretch of violent incidents. “Treating Chicagoland violence as merely a tally necessarily dehumanizes its victims, but it also obscures so much of the larger story about that violence. It's data without context.” Not only is the murder rate steadily declining in Chicago, but there is a massive disparity in victims of these crimes: “Eighty-five percent of violence—any shootings—happens among 5 percent of people,” Papachristos says.

In an article about libertarianism and state laws related to guns and other topics, the Economist cites a study about the social costs of gun ownership by RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research recipients Philip Cook, PhD, and Jens Ludwig, PhD. It finds that “more guns empirically lead to more gun-related violence, largely because legally purchased guns somehow end up in the hands of criminals via theft,” gun shows, and online sales, which are largely unregulated. To address these issues, Cook and Ludwig suggest making it costlier to buy guns in high-crime areas, and improving the records used to screen gun buyers by including more information on possible mental-health problems, among other proposals. (Free registration required to view article.)

A study co-authored by RWJF Health & Society Scholars program alumnus Alexander Tsai, PhD, MD, finds that men who are more socially connected are half as likely to commit suicide as men considered loners, NBC News reports. The study looks at data on nearly 35,000 men, ages 40 to 75, and finds that those who are more isolated are at greater risk, even if they are not mentally ill. “Public health practitioners think about things like cardiovascular disease as warranting public health attention,” says Tsai, suggesting that suicide may also need attention.

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Jun 5 2014
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RWJF Scholars in the News: Diversity in the nursing workforce, barriers to breast-feeding, child maltreatment, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

HealthLeaders Media features New Careers in Nursing (NCIN), a joint initiative of RWJF and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) that is increasing diversity in the nursing workforce. “The reason [increasing diversity] is important, of course, is because the population of nursing does not really reflect the population at large,” Polly Bednash, PhD, RN, FAAN, says in the story. “We are now working very aggressively to have the number of people entering the profession look more like the population of the United States.” Bednash is NCIN program director and AACN’s CEO.

In an opinion piece for the Philadelphia Inquirer, Jooyoung Lee, PhD, writes that, in the aftermath of mass shootings, the media and public often focus chiefly on the shooters and forget about the families of those slain. “Instead of fixating on the shooter, or retreating into our own lives, let’s remember and honor those who are left behind. Their lives are often difficult and grinding; their grief is immeasurable. Healing from murder is rarely—if ever—a quick or complete process,” writes Lee, an RWJF Health & Society Scholars program alumnus. Read more about Lee’s work.

Living in neighborhoods with high rates of violence can affect students’ academic performance, according to a study from RWJF Health & Society Scholars program alumnus from Patrick Sharkey, PhD. The Washington Post reports that the study found that neighborhood violence that occurred within seven days of a test appeared to reduce Black children’s performance on language arts assessments. “When violence is in the air, when the threat of violence is in the air, then it becomes something that spills over to affect not just people who are involved, but everyone who lives in the community,” Sharkey says.

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Apr 24 2014
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RWJF Scholars in the News: Markers for PTSD, inexcusable morbidity, nurse education, cigarette marketing, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

Neuroscientists at Harvard University studying trauma and the adolescent brain have identified markers that might help predict susceptibility to post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), New England Public Radio (NEPR) reports. Kate McLaughlin, PhD, an RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna, and colleagues were studying young people who’d been through serious adversity when the Boston Marathon bombing occurred. They surveyed some study participants who had already had brain scans about how much media coverage of the tragedy they’d watched and how they reacted emotionally, learning that children with certain neurobiological markers or previous trauma were more likely to report symptoms of PTSD. “The more that we can understand the neurobiological markers as well as the psychological and social markers ... the better able we’ll be to deliver early and effective interventions to prevent the onset of mental health problems,” she tells NEPR. Listen here.

“People think about asthma and think we must have a handle on it in the United States, but the grim reality is that most patients’ asthma in this country is uncontrolled,” David Van Sickle, PhD, MA, an RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumnus tells Nonprofit Quarterly in an interview. Van Sickle points to little progress in reducing asthma-related hospitalizations, and what he describes as “inexcusable morbidity” from the condition.  

RWJF Executive Nurse Fellows alumna Jane Kirschling, RN, PhD, FAAN, is featured in Nurse.com on the importance of nurse education. “We’re the largest single group of health care providers in the United States, and we’re there 24-7, 365 days a year for the care that’s provided,” Kirschling said. “That’s in hospitals, community settings and long-term care settings. So, we have to make that commitment as a discipline and as professional nurses to continue to expand our knowledge and our critical thinking skills, and we do that through advancing nursing education.”

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Apr 8 2014
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Preventing Youth Violence May Cost Less Than You Think…

Adam L. Sharp, MD, MS is an emergency physician and recent University of Michigan Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholar (2011-2013). He works for Kaiser Permanente Southern California in the Research and Evaluation Department performing acute care health services and implementation research.

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Violence is a leading cause of death and injury in adolescents. Recent studies show effective interventions can prevent violent behavior in youth seen in the Emergency Department (ED). Adoption of this type of preventive care has not been broadly implemented in EDs, however, and cost concerns frequently create barriers to utilization of these types of best practices. Understanding the costs associated with preventive services will allow for wise stewardship over limited health care resources. In a recent publication in Pediatrics, "Cost Analysis of Youth Violence Prevention," colleagues and I predict that it costs just $17.06 to prevent an incident of youth violence.

The violence prevention intervention is a computer-assisted program using motivational interviewing techniques delivered by a trained social worker. The intervention takes about 30 minutes to perform and was evaluated within an urban ED for youth who screened positive for past year violence and alcohol abuse. The outcomes assessed were violence consequences (i.e., trouble at school because of fighting, family/friends suggested you stop fighting, arguments with family/friends because of fighting, felt cannot control fighting, trouble getting along with family/friends because of your fighting), peer victimization (i.e., hit or punched by someone, had a knife/gun used against them), and severe peer aggression (i.e., hit or punched someone, used a knife/gun against someone).

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Mar 20 2014
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RWJF Scholars in the News: ADHD medication, reconstruction after mastectomy, care for returning veterans, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

NBC News reports on a surge in the number of young adult women taking ADHD medication. An RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research recipient, Stephen Hinshaw, PhD, explains that the rise in diagnoses among women in that age group may be evidence of failure to recognize the problem when the women were children. They may not have manifested symptoms as visibly as their male classmates with ADHD did, turning their distress inward rather than misbehaving in class, for example.

“How people with mental disorders are viewed by treatment providers and the general public can have a significant impact on treatment outcomes and the quality of life of clients,” Jennifer Stuber, PhD, and colleagues write in a study reported by Health Canal. The researchers presented vignettes about people with mental health problems to mental health providers and the general public, and compared their reactions. Providers had more positive attitudes, but some held views about the danger such patients might pose in the workplace that the researchers called “concerning.” Stuber is an RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumna.

More women are having breast reconstruction after mastectomies, USA Today reports. As a result of a 1998 federal law, most group insurance plans that cover mastectomies also cover breast reconstruction. Researchers found that the share of women who received reconstruction after mastectomy rose from 46 percent to 63 percent between 1998 and 2007. Author Reshma Jagsi, MD, DPhil, an RWJF Physician Faculty Scholars alumna, says the law could be contributing to the increase. The study was also covered by 9 News (Denver) and WKYC.com (Cleveland), among other outlets.

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Nov 21 2013
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Human Capital News Roundup: Electronic health records, the widow effect, child safety restraint laws, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

Race and economic status are not as important as social network in predicting whether a person will become a victim of a fatal shooting in Chicago, according to a study from Andrew Papachristos, PhD, an RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumnus. “Generally, you can’t catch a bullet from just anyone,” Papachristos told the Chicago Sun Times. “Your relationship with the people involved matters.” The study was also covered by NPR, U.S. News & World Report, and Psych Central, among other outlets.

Most organizations across the United States are in the middle stages of implementing electronic health records, Ann O’Brien, RN, told NurseZone.com. O’Brien is senior director of clinical informatics for Kaiser Permanente and an RWJF Executive Nurse Fellow. “At Kaiser … we have almost three years now of electronic health record data and the ability to actually optimize data and technology to improve care,” she said.

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Oct 31 2013
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Human Capital News Roundup: The cost of disposable diapers, toxins in fish, fast food calories, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast, and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni, and grantees. Some recent examples:

WNYC in New York City broadcast an interview with RWJF Community Health Leader Joanne Goldblum about families reusing disposable diapers due to economic hardship. Goldblum, who is founder and executive director of the National Diaper Bank Network, conducted a study that shows how the practice leads to a range of problems for families living in poverty.

When it comes to digital health and new ways to deliver care, the focus should be on the consumer and improving outcomes, not on the technology, according to experts at a recent Connected Health Symposium in Boston, Massachusetts. Mobile Health News reports that Propeller Health (formerly Asthmapolis) CEO David Van Sickle, PhD, MA, an RWJF Health & Society Scholars alumnus, pressed for greater emphasis on outcomes.  Read more about Van Sickle’s work here and here.

An American Thoracic Society panel of experts, including RWJF Interdisciplinary Nursing Quality Research Initiative (INQRI) grantee Richard Mularski, MD, is calling for better care for those who suffer severe shortness of breath due to advanced lung and heart disease. The Annals of the American Thoracic Society reports that the panel recommends patients and providers develop individualized actions plans to keep episodes from becoming emergencies, Medical Xpress reports.

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Jul 11 2013
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Human Capital News Roundup: Emergency room use, immigration, helping youth think about the way they think, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni and grantees. Some recent examples:

A new report that provides the first comprehensive assessment of the nation’s public health nurse workforce finds public health nurses have very high levels of job satisfaction, but concerns about job stability and compensation. The report also finds that public health departments struggle to hire nurses and fill vacancies. Among the outlets to report on the findings: Nurse.com, Fierce Healthcare, and HealthLeaders Media. Read more about the report here and here.

Patients with low socioeconomic status use emergency rooms (ERs) more often than primary care because they perceive ERs to be more convenient, less costly and of better quality, according to a study led by RWJF/U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Clinical Scholars program alumna Shreya Kangovi, MD. Among the outlets to report on the findings: Kaiser Health NewsCapsules blog, Health Day, and Health Canal. Read more about the study.

The U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision to overturn a 2003 federal law that prohibited government-funded clinics from serving sex workers was also a smart public health decision, Celeste Watkins-Hayes, PhD, recipient of an RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research, writes in a blog post for The Atlantic. “These providers grapple with how to keep all populations safe, not just those engaging in legal and socially desirable behavior,” Watkins-Hayes writes. “As a result, the very people who need the most access to HIV preventive and treatment measures may not receive them … [not] allowing them to take a neutral stance that allows them to focus first and foremost on risk reduction … is counterproductive in the fight against HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.”

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May 2 2013
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Human Capital News Roundup: Medication errors affecting children with cancer, particulate matter, the needs of urban communities, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows, alumni and grantees. Some recent examples:

CBS Evening News profiled RWJF Community Health Leader Roseanna Means, MD, who founded the nonprofit Women of Means in 1988 to provide free medical care to homeless women in the Boston area. Today, 16 volunteer doctors and staff nurses provide care at the city’s shelters to women with unique sensitivities and needs. Read a post Means wrote about her nonprofit for the RWJF Human Capital Blog.

A study led by RWJF Clinical Scholars alumnus Matthew M. Davis, MD, MAPP, finds more than 40 percent of American parents give over-the-counter cough and cold medicines to children under age 4, despite product label warnings to the contrary. Health Day and the Examiner report on the findings.

Helena Hansen, MD, PhD, an alumna of the RWJF Health & Society Scholars program, is the lead author of an analysis that concludes social determinants—rather than changes in the environment or flawed diagnostic criteria—help explain the dramatic rise in the number of Americans diagnosed with mental disorders in recent years. Health Canal and MedPage Today report on the findings.

Forty-seven percent of children with cancer who receive part of their treatment at home have been exposed to at least one medication error, according to a study led by RWJF Physician Faculty Scholars alumna Kathleen E. Walsh, MD, MSc. Those errors had the potential to harm 36 per 100 patients, and actually did cause injury to four per 100, MedPage Today reports.

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Mar 14 2013
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Human Capital News Roundup: Television ads for statins, advanced nursing education, treatment for gunshot wounds, and more.

Around the country, print, broadcast and online media outlets are covering the groundbreaking work of Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) leaders, scholars, fellows and grantees. Some recent examples:

In a piece about the growing need for advanced nursing education, Nurse.com interviewed a group of nurse leaders working to fulfill a recommendation from the Institute of Medicine report, The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, which calls for doubling the number of doctorate-level nurses by 2020. Among those quoted: Christine Kovner, RN, PhD, FAAN, co-principal of RWJF’s RN Work Project; RWJF Executive Nurse Fellows alumna Jane Kirschling, RN, DNS, FAAN; and Susan Bakewell-Sachs, RN, PhD, PNP-BC, program director for the New Jersey Nursing Initiative, a program of RWJF and the New Jersey Chamber of Commerce Foundation.

Nurse.com and Infection Control Today report on an RWJF-supported study that finds hospitals that have higher percentages of nurses with baccalaureate degrees have lower rates of postsurgical mortality. The study, published in the March issue of Health Affairs, stems from the Future of Nursing: Campaign for ActionRead more about the study.

“I recently traveled to Singapore, where I met with other doctors and told about being the emergency department (ED) doctor at the University of Colorado Hospital the morning of the Aurora theater shootings on July 20, 2012,” RWJF Clinical Scholars alumna Comilla Sasson, MD, MS, FACEP, writes in an op-ed for the Denver Post. “One thing dawned on me as I spoke: I had seen more gunshot wound victims in that one night than these doctors will see in their entire careers.” Read a post Sasson wrote for the RWJF Human Capital Blog about the Aurora theater shootings, and learn more about her experience talking to the national news media afterward.

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